For independent news media organisations, journalists and journalism at large to function properly and survive economically, a number of conditions need to be met. These conditions can be grouped into three dimensions of the enabling environment for media and journalists. For many years these dimensions, in the analysis of Freedom House, consisted of the nationally-focused political, economic and legal enabling environment. But, increasingly, online communication platforms and technologies and innovations across borders as well as the online behaviour of audiences are impacting on the enabling environment for the media and the motivation and ability of states to regulate online.
This resource guide consists of three main sections. The first describes the three main pillars of the enabling environment for news media and journalists, with an emphasis on media viability and small and medium-sized media outlets. It will explore key concepts and issues of media law and regulation; main issues in the political environment that create or diminish space for media freedom and freedom of speech; and economic threats to and opportunities for media viability. A main theme throughout this section is how the enabling environment for the media has been dominated by tech giants, their influence on the platform economy and internet governance, and the struggle that existing regulatory and intellectual frameworks have to keep pace with this development.
The second section will look at the main multilateral and intergovernmental organisations as well as multi-stakeholder networks and platforms that serve as normative spaces and places for the enabling environment of the media. The third section will give an overview of advocacy strategies, toolkits and resources.
The resource guide does not attempt to include all possible considerations and developments within these sections. Instead, tries to strike a balance between general descriptions of the different phenomena and the responses of Free Press Unlimited and our partner network in our media development and advocacy work. It will make linkages to our combined track record and relevant evidence and literature that is being collected and expanded on a rolling basis in the evidence base.
Picture by ATMTX. Curves and Pillars, Russell Senate Office Building – Washington DC
Picture: Magna Carta
Picture by Ramyar Jabar
Picture by Romy van den Boogaart
Evidence base: Enabling environment for the media
|Tipping Point: Democratic Erosion and the Assault on Press Freedom||2021||Global||CIMA||Musgrave, K.|
|Coalitions for Change: Collective Action, Better Media Ecosystems||2021||Global||BBC Media Action||Randall, M.|
|No News Is Bad News Programme Evaluation||2021||Global||Free Press Unlimited||Myers, M. et al.|
|Good Practices Compendium on Combating Corruption in the Response to COVID-19||2020||Global||United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)||UNODC|
|Nations in Transit 2020: Dropping the Democratic Facade||2020||Global||Freedom House||Csaky, Z.|
|COVID-19 Vaccines and Corruption Risks: Preventing Corruption in the Manufacture, Allocation and Distribution of Vaccines||2020||Global||United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)||UNODC|
|Gender aspects of employment and career in the media sector of Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine||2020||Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine||Fojo Media Institute||Fojo Media Institute|
|Breaking the Silence||2020||Europe||Index on Censorship||Mhainín, J.N.|
|Freedom of Information Access (FOIA): Key Challenges, Lessons Learned and Strategies for Effective Implementation in Public Agencies||2020||Albania, Italy, Jordan, South Africa, Thailand, Uganda||World Bank||World Bank|
|A Gathering Storm: The Laws Being Used to Silence the Media||2020||Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Europe, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom||Index on Censorship||Mhainín, J.N.|
|Local Radio Stations in Africa Prove Resilient Amid COVID-19||2020||Uganda, Zimbabwe||Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)||Myers, M. et al.|
|Impact of the 2015 Universal Periodic Review on Press Freedom in Nepal||2020||Nepal||Free Press Unlimited||Thakur, M.|