International and regional legal standards
The United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of American States and the Council of Europe have developed standards and instruments that protect freedom of expression and media freedom. These create positive obligations for member states towards its citizens and media professionals.
International bodies and mechanisms
These same actors have developed bodies and mechanisms such as courts, special rapporteurs and commissions. These mechanisms sometimes offer opportunities to to advocates of freedom of expression and media freedom to engage governments and hold them accountable for realising these positive obligations.