A research project in Nigeria, India, and Pakistan found that messaging apps might be the primary source for spread of misinformation.
They found evidence that:
- Users tend to pay more attention to voice-based corrections, than to text or image-based corrections;
- Corrections received from a family member or a close friend are re-shared more than corrections received from an acquaintance;
- Similarly, corrections received from a like-minded individual are re-shared more than corrections received from a non-like-minded individual;
- Overall, sharing corrections on messaging apps is perceived as a highly stressful, unusual activity in which only highly motivated individuals are willing to engage.