Understanding Misinformation on Mobile Instant Messengers (MIMs) in Developing Countries

A research project in Nigeria, India, and Pakistan found that messaging apps might be the primary source for spread of misinformation.

They found evidence that:

  • Users tend to pay more attention to voice-based corrections, than to text or image-based corrections;
  • Corrections received from a family member or a close friend are re-shared more than corrections received from an acquaintance;
  • Similarly, corrections received from a like-minded individual are re-shared more than corrections received from a non-like-minded individual;
  • Overall, sharing corrections on messaging apps is perceived as a highly stressful, unusual activity in which only highly motivated individuals are willing to engage.


Year Country Organisation Author Type
2020 India, Nigeria, Pakistan Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy Pasquetto, I.V. et al. research report
Theory of Change Keywords Download/link
Intermediate Outcome 2 fact checking, media literacy, misinformation, social media Download/link