Last update: 28 September 2020
This Media and COVID-19 Resource Space is the place to find information and resources on the continuation of journalistic work during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The COVID-19 crisis has had a tremendous impact on the world and on the media sector worldwide. Now, more than ever, the free flow of reliable and fact-based information is indispensable. However, in many parts of the world there is either a problem with the low quantity of information – especially in, for instance, rural areas – as well as the low quality of information. These can go hand in hand with so-called infodemics: the lack of access to reliable fact-based information and the increase of gossip, rumour and conspiracy in regard to life-saving information on the spread and prevention of COVID-19.
Whenever governments actively play a role in withholding information, the key role of journalists and media professionals becomes even more apparent. Media can play a critical role in educating the public on the virus. However, in carrying out their duty of delivering reliable information, journalists are often met with intimidation, harassment, internet interference and censorship, especially when they ask critical questions about the way their respective governments handle the pandemic. Furthermore, many governments around the world have called a state of emergency, allowing them to temporarily impose certain policies or suspend certain rights in the fight against the pandemic. The state of emergency can be used as a pretext to infringe upon citizens’ human rights and to hamper the work of journalists. One example is the implementation of measures criminalising the spread of fake or false information; while advertised a a measure to fight disinformation, it might be used to censor critical voices. The International Press Institute’s tracker on press freedom violations linked to COVID-19 coverage offers more insight into the threats that journalists worldwide have faced since the start of the pandemic.
Source: International Press Institute
Reporters Without Borders has launched a tool named Tracker 19, which refers to both COVID-19 as article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (freedom of opinion and expression). The aim of this project is the evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on journalism and to document instances of state censorship and misinformation. The map below visualises the countries where incidents have been recorded.
Source: Reporters Without Borders
Other challenges that journalists and media professionals have needed to face, are adapting their work by means of working online and social distancing. Furthermore, the financial health of independent media outlets is under threat, as many of them are experiencing a decline in revenue from advertising. This may have a big impact on critical reporting, but shows the need for media businesses to focus on scenario planning and a business continuity plan.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a number of challenges to journalists. This page provides an overview of resources relating to how to report responsibly, how to deal with mis- and dis-information, and how to take care of one’s safety and well-being during this crisis.
A coalition of seven organisations (Free Press Unlimited, ARTICLE 19, Deutsche Welle Akademie, Fondation Hirondelle, International Media Support, Reporters Without Borders and UNESCO) are implementing an eighteen-month-project, financed by DG DEVCO (European Union). This project focuses on supporting the provision of reliable and critical information about COVID-19 in Africa.
Evidence base: Media and COVID-19
|Journalism & the Pandemic: A Global Snapshot of Impacts||2020||Global||International Center for Journalists (ICFJ) & Tow Center for Digital Journalism||report|
|The Right to Information in Times of Crisis: Access to Information – Saving Lives, Building Trust, Bringing Hope!||2020||Global||UNESCO||report|
|The Missing Perspectives of Women in COVID-19 News||2015||India, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States of America||AKAS Ltd.||research report|
|Impact of COVID-19 on Journalism in Nepal||2020||Nepal||Nepal Press Institute (NPI)||report|
|Experiencing ‘New Normal’: Exploring Digital Media Usage of Dhaka Dwellers in the Lockdown Period||2020||Bangladesh||South Asia Center for Media in Development (SACMID)||academic paper|
|Nations in Transit 2020: Dropping the Democratic Facade||2020||Global||Freedom House||research report|
|Journalism in Bangladesh during Corona Pandemic||2020||Bangladesh||South Asia Center for Media in Development (SACMID)||book|
|A Lockdown for Independent Media? Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Media Landscape and Press Freedom in Central and Southeast Europe||2020||Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia||Friedrich Ebert Stiftung & n-ost||report|
|Covid-19 News and Information from State-Backed Outlets Targeting French, German and Spanish-Speaking Social Media Users: Understanding Chinese, Iranian, Russian and Turkish Outlets||2020||China, Iran, Russia, Turkey||Oxford Internet Institute (University of Oxford)||academic paper|
|African Journalism in the Eye of the Pandemic Storm||2020||Africa||Federation of African Journalists (FAJ)||report|
|The Splice Lights On Survey Shows That Over 40% of Media Orgs Expect to Start Cutting Jobs in the Next 12 Months||2020||Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Cambodia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, North Macedonia, Philippines, Portugal, Serbia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Ukraine, United States of America, Vietnam||Splice||report|
|Myanmar’s Media Response to COVID-19: A Media Development Investment Fund (MDIF) Survey||2020||Myanmar||Media Development Investment Fund (MDIF)||case study/ies, report|